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Philippine English Development, Structure, and Sociology of English in the Philippines

1st Edition

Edited By Ariane Macalinga Borlongan

Philippine English is a comprehensive reference work on the history, sociology, and linguistic structure of Philippine English. It offers readers unprecedented access to a synthesis of the last 50 years of research into Philippine English and puts forward a new and better understanding of the phenomenon of the nativization of English in the Philippines and the emergence of Philippine English. This definitive resource covers in great length and depth all that is currently known about the new English.

The chapters offer detailed descriptions of Philippine English at various linguistic levels in addition to examining the psychosociolinguistic factors which shaped the language. Offering discussions of practice, language policy, language education, language teaching, and the relevance of English in various social phenomena in the Philippines, readers will find everything they need to know on theory, methodology, and application in the study of Philippine English.


Table of Contents

Preface Deconstructing Ma. Lourdes Bautista: A Non-Linguist’s Perspective Prologue: Philippine English in the ‘Concerto’ of World Englishes

Part 1: Introduction

1. Conspectus

2. History and Development

3. Resources Special Feature: Ma. Lourdes Bautista and Philippine English

Part 2: Linguistic Structure

4. Phonology

5. Lexicon

6. Grammar

7. Discourse

8. Spelling and Punctuation

Part 3: Sociolinguistic Variation and Change

9. Internal Variation

10. Diachronic Change

11. Philippine English in Relation to American English

12. Contact with Other Languages

13. Hybridization

Part 4: Linguistic and Literary Canon

14. Lexicography

15. Standard Philippine English

16. Philippine Literature in English

Part 5: Psychosociolinguistic Dimensions

17. Intelligibility

18. Attitudes

19. Multilingualism

20. Language and Policy

Part 6: Learning and Teaching

21. Acquisition and Learning

22. Language Teaching

23. Language Testing

24. Teacher Education

Part 7: Contemporary Issues

25. Internet

26. Migration

27. Outsourced Call Centers

28. Teaching English as a Foreign Language in the Philippines

Special Feature: World Englishes and Social Change

Epilogue: Contemporary Concerns and Future Directions


ISBN 9781138370760 (hbk)

ISBN 9781032221724 (pbk)

ISBN 9780429427824 (ebk)

Published 2023 by Routledge



Ariane Macalinga Borlongan’s education and experience across the world have inspired him to passionately work with English speakers in non-Anglo-American contexts. As a sociolinguist, he has analyzed variation, change, and standardization across Englishes. He earned his Ph.D. in Applied Linguistics at age 23 via a competitive accelerated program in De La Salle University (Manila, the Philippines) and is presently Associate Professor of Sociolinguistics at the Tokyo University of Foreign Studies (Japan).


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